Founded 1000 years ago, Marrakech has an incredible and uncommon history, marked by the brilliant periods of its history; today it retains a rich cultural heritage. It is up to us then to dive deeper into the periods that fascinate us.
Marrakech was founded in 1062 by Youssef IbnTachfin, first ruler of the Almoravid dynasty. Simple caravan camp, the city becomes an important cultural, commercial, and religious center that shone throughout Morocco, Andalusia and Black Africa, thanks to the construction of many mosques and medersas (Koranic schools). Marrakech is elected capital of the kingdom. It is also at this time that the plantation of the Palmeraie began. The legend tells that by eating dates, Youssef IbnTachfin sprinkled the fruit stones, which found there fertile, soil to flourish and eventually lead to palm trees. Youssef IbnTachfin's son, Ali Ben Youssef built ramparts for several kilometers so that he can protect the city from attacks.
In 1147, Abd El-Moumen, founder of the Almohad dynasty, sieged Marrakech for nine months, and seized the city. The main buildings of Marrakech were razed. The Remparts, and the minaret of Koutoubia will be spared. During the reign of the first Almohad kings, "the red city" will be the capital of a prosperous empire. They built many palaces and religious buildings, such as the famous mosque of Koutoubia.
At the end of the 13th century, the Marinid rulers overthrew the Almohad Caliphate, which controlled Morocco.The Marinid dynasty briefly held sway over all the Maghreb in the mid-14th century and were able to take Marrakech from the weakened Almohads. The city was then abandoned by its men of letters and artisans, in favor of Fez, which became the capital.
In the early 16th century, Marrakech became the capital of the kingdom. It also revives prosperity and beauty, thanks to the Saadian Sultan Ahmed El-Mansour, who built among others the El-Badii Palace, a replica of the Alhambra of Andalusia, as well as the Saadian tombs.
At the end of the Saadian dynasty, Marrakesh loses much of its prestige and heritage that falls into ruin. It was not until the reign of the Alawites (the currentMoroccan royal family) that the city regained some prestige with the restoration of the walls of the city, the Kasbah and the construction of new buildings and mosques. At the beginning of the 20th century, Marrakech experienced many political troubles. During this period, Marrakech was governed by Pasha Thami El Glaoui until the end of the protectorate. With the help of the French, EL Glaoui reigns in a despotic way, of which he represses the insurrections of the Berber tribes and became one of the most influential men of Morocco. In 1956, the end of the protectorate and the return of exile of Mohamed V marks the end of the reign of Glaoui.