The symbol of the red city, the ramparts which construction, commissioned by ali Ben Youssef, began in 1126, surround the old town today: the medina. it took decades to build the ramparts so that the adobe and clay-made walls would reach more than 10 km. Those walls are interspersed by 202 square –shaped towers and 10 imposing gates give access to the town. Topped by a walkway, the 8 to 10 m- high walls served as a protection against attacks from enemies. To discover the ramparts you can take a calèche (a horsedrawn cab) for a four -hour ride, including some walking breaks. The itinerary begins at Place de la liberté, west of the medina.